Open Veins of Latin America

Addressing the Summit of the Americas Obama explained “I didn’t come here to debate the past, I came here to deal with the future.”

Well the past is inextricably linked with the future and Chavez created a media sensation by forcing that past into Obama’s hand in the form of a handshake with a copy of Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent.   The book then shot to #2 on the Amazon bestseller list.

In case you missed all that excitement, the foreword by Isabel Allende, which is quite excellent, and a short extract of Eduardo Galeano’s work, In Defence of the Word, are included below to further entice.

Isabel Allende

Many years ago, when I was young and still believed that the world could be shaped according to our best intentions and hopes, someone gave me a book with a yellow cover that I devoured in two days with such emotion that I had to read it again a couple more times to absorb all its meaning: Open Veins of Latin America, by Eduardo Galeano.

In the early 1970s, Chile was a small island in the tempestuous sea in which history had plunged Latin America, the continent that appears on the map in the form of an ailing heart. We were in the midst of the Socialist government of Salvador Allende, the first Marxist ever to become president in a democratic election, a man who had a dream of equality and liberty and the passion to make that dream come true. That book with the yellow covers, however, proved that there were no safe islands in our region, we all shared 500 years of exploitation and colonization, we were all linked by a common fate, we all belonged to the same race of the oppressed. If I had been able to read between the lines, I could have concluded that Salvador Allende’s government was doomed from the beginning. It was the time of the Cold War, and the United States would not allow a leftist experiment to succeed in what Henry Kissinger called “its backyard.” The Cuban Revolution was enough; no other socialist project would be tolerated, even if it was the result of a democratic election. On September 11, 1973, a military coup ended a century of democratic tradition in Chile and started the long reign of General Augusto Pinochet. Similar coups followed in other countries, and soon half the continent’s population was living in terror. This was a strategy designed in Washington and imposed upon the Latin American people by the economic and political forces of the right. In every instance the military acted as mercenaries to the privileged groups in power. Repression was organized on a large scale; torture, concentration camps, censorship, imprisonment without trial, and summary executions became common practices. Thousands of people “disappeared,” masses of exiles and refugees left their countries running for their lives. New wounds were added to the old and recent scars that the continent had endured. In this political context, Open Veins of Latin America was published. This book made Eduardo Galeano famous overnight, although he was already a well-known political journalist in Uruguay.

Like all his countrymen, Eduardo wanted to be a soccer player. He also wanted to be a saint, but as it turned out, he ended up committing most of the deadly sins, as he once confessed. “I have never killed anybody, it is true, but it is because I lacked the courage or the time, not because I lacked the desire,” He worked for a weekly political magazine Marcha, and at twenty-eight he became the director of the Important newspaper Epoca, in Uruguay. He wrote Open Veins of Latin America in three months, in the last ninety nights of 1970, while he worked during the day in the university, editing books, magazines, and newsletters.

Those were bad times in Uruguay. Planes and ships left filled with young people who were escaping from poverty and mediocrity in a country that forced them to be old at twenty, and that produced more violence than meat or wool. After an eclipse that had lasted a century, the military invaded the scene with the excuse of fighting the Tupamaro guerrilla. They sacrificed the spaces of liberty and devoured the civil power, which was less and less civil.

By the middle of 1973 there was a military coup, he was imprisoned, and shortly afterward he went into exile in Argentina, where he created the magazine Crisis. But by 1976 there was a military coup also in Argentina, and the “dirty war” against intellectuals, leftists, Journalists, and artists began. Galeano initiated another exile, this time in Spain, with Helena Villagra, his wife. In Spain he wrote Days and Nights of Love and War, a beautiful book about memory, and soon after he began a sort of conversation with the soul of America: Memories of Fire, a massive fresco of Latin American history since the pre-Colombian era to modern rimes. “I imagined that America was a woman and she was telling in my ear her secrets, the acts of love and violations that had created her.” He worked on these three volumes for eight years, writing by hand. “I am not particularly interested in saving time; I prefer to enjoy it.” Finally, in 1985, after a plebiscite defeated the military dictatorship in Uruguay, Galeano was able to return to his country. His exile had lasted eleven years, but he had not learned to be invisible or silent; as soon as he set foot in Montevideo he was again working to fortify the fragile democracy that replaced the military junta, and he continued to defy the authorities and risk his life to denounce the crimes of the dictatorship.

Eduardo Galeano has also published several works of fiction and poetry; he is the author of innumerable articles, interviews, and lectures; he has obtained many awards, honorary degrees, and recognition for his literary talent and his political activism. He is one of the most interesting authors ever to come out of Latin America, a region known for its great literary names. His work is a mixture of meticulous detail, political conviction, poetic flair, and good story telling. He has walked up and down Latin America listening to the voices of the poor and the oppressed, as well as those of the leaders and the intellectuals. He has lived with Indians, peasants, guerrillas, soldiers, artists, and outlaws; he has talked to presidents, tyrants, martyrs, priests, heroes, bandits, desperate mothers, and patient prostitutes. He has been bitten by snakes, suffered tropical fevers, walked in the jungle, and survived a massive heart attack; he has been persecuted by repressive regimes as well as, by fanatical terrorists. He has opposed military dictatorships and all forms of brutality and exploitation, taking unthinkable risks in defense of human rights. He has more first-hand knowledge of Latin America than anybody else I can think of, and uses it to tell the world of the dreams and disillusions, the hopes and the failures of its people. He is an adventurer with a talent for writing, a compassionate heart, and a soft sense of humor. “We live in a world that treats the dead better than the living, We, the living, are askers of questions and givers of answers, and we have other grave defects unpardonable by a system that believes death, like money, improves people.”

All these talents were already obvious in his first book, Open Veins of Latin America, as was his genius for story-telling. 1 know Eduardo Galeano personally: he can produce an endless scream of stories with no apparent effort, for an undetermined period of time. Once we were both stranded in a beach hotel in Cuba with no transportation and no airconditioning. For several days he entertained me with his amazing stories over pina coladas. This almost superhuman talent for storytelling is what makes Open Veins of Latin America so easy to read— like a pirate’s novel, as he once described it— even for those who are not particularly knowledgeable about political or economic matters. The book flows with the grace of a tale; it is impossible to put it down. His arguments, his rage, and his passion would be overwhelming if they were not expressed with such superb style, with such masterful timing and suspense. Galeano denounces exploitation with uncompromising ferocity, yet this book is almost poetic in its description of solidarity and human capacity for survival in the midst of the worst kind of despoliation. There is a mysterious power in Galeano’s story-telling. He uses his craft to invade the privacy of the reader’s mind, to persuade him or her to read and to continue reading to the very end, to surrender to the charm of his writing and the power of his idealism.

In his Book of Embraces, Eduardo has a story that I love. To me it is a splendid metaphor of writing in general and his writing in particular.

There was an old and solitary man who spent most of his time in bed. There were rumors that he had a treasure hidden in his house. One day some thieves broke in, they searched everywhere and found a chest in the cellar. They went off with it and when they opened it they found that it was filled with letters. They were the love letters the old man had received all over the course of his long life. The thieves were going to burn the letters, but they talked it over and finally decided to return them. One by one. One a week. Since then, every Monday at noon the old man would be waiting for the postman TO appear. As soon he saw him, the old man would start running and the postman, who knew all about it, held the letter in his hand. And even St. Peter could hear the beating of that heart, crazed with joy at receiving a message from a woman.

Isn’t this the playful substance of literature? An event transformed by poetic truth, Writers are like those thieves, they take something that is real, like the letters, and by a trick of magic they transform it into something, totally fresh. In Galeano’s tale the letters existed and they belonged to the old man in the first place, but they were kept unread in a dark cellar, they were dead. By the simple trick of mailing them back one by one, those good thieves gave new life to the letters and new illusions to the old man. To me this is admirable in Galeano’s work: finding the hidden treasures, giving sparkle to worn-out events, and invigorating the tired soul with his ferocious passion.

Open Veins of Latin America is an invitation to explore beyond the appearance of things. Great literary works like this one wake up consciousness, bring people together, interpret, explain, denounce, keep record, and provoke changes. There is one other aspect of Eduardo Galeano that fascinates me. This man who has so much knowledge and who has— by studying the clues and the signs— developed a sense of foretelling, is an optimist. At the end of Century of the Wind, the third volume of Memory of Fire, after 600 pages proving the genocide, the cruelty, the abuse, and exploitation exerted upon the people of Latin America, after a patient recount of everything that has been stolen and continues to be stolen from the continent, he writes:

The tree of life knows that, whatever happens, the warm music spinning around it will never stop. However much death may come, however much blood may flow, the music will dance men and women as long as the air breaths them and the land plows and loves them.

This breath of hope is what moves me the most in Galeano’s work. Like thousands of refugees all over the continent, I also had to leave my country after the military coup of 1973. I could not take much with me: some clothes, family pictures, a small bag with dirt from my garden, and two books: an old edition of the Odes by Pablo Neruda, and the book with the yellow cover, Las Venas Abiertas de America Latina. More than twenty years later I still have that same book with me. That is why I could not miss the opportunity to write this introduction and thank Eduardo Galeano publicly for his stupendous love for freedom, and for his contribution to my awareness as a writer and as a citizen of Latin America. As he said once: “it’s worthwhile to die for things without which it’s not worthwhile to live.”

In Defense of the Word

One writes out of a need to communicate and to commune with others, to denounce that which gives pain and to share that which gives happiness. One writes against one’s solitude and against the solitude of others. One assumes that literature transmits knowledge and affects the behavior and language of those who read… One writes, in reality, for the people whose luck or misfortune one identifies with— the hungry, the sleepless, the rebels, and the wretched of this earth— and the majority of them are illiterate.

… How can those of us who want to work for a literature that helps to make audible the voice of the voiceless function in the context of this reality? Can we make ourselves heard in the midst of a deaf-mute culture? The small freedom conceded to writers, is it not at times a proof of our failure? How far can we go? Whom can we reach?

… To awaken consciousness, to reveal identity— can literature claim a better function in these times?… in these lands?

. . Our own fate as Latin American writers is linked to the need for profound social transformations. To narrate is to give oneself: it seems obvious that literature, as an effort to communicate fully, will continue to be blocked … so long as misery and illiteracy exist, and so long as the possessors of power continue to carry on with impunity their policy of collective imbecilization through … the mass media. .

.. Great changes, deep structural changes, will be necessary in our countries if we writers are to go beyond… the elites, if we are to express ourselves. … In an incarcerated society, free literature can exist only as denunciation and hope. …

..We are what we do, especially what we do to change what we are….In this respect a “revolutionary” literature written for the convinced is just as much an abandonment as is a conservative literature devoted to the . . . contemplation of one’s own navel. …

Our effectiveness depends on our capacity to be audacious and astute, clear and appealing. I would hope that we can create a language more fearless and beautiful than that used by conformist writers to greet the twilight.

… In Latin America a literature is taking shape and acquiring strength, a literature… that does not propose to bury our dead, but to immortalize them; that refuses to stir the ashes but rather attempts to light the fire .. perhaps it may help to preserve for the generations to come . . . “the true name of all things.”

Eduardo Galeano, 1978
translation by Bobbye Ortiz
from Days And Nights of Love and War (1983)
reprinted by Monthly Review Press to honor Judy Ruben

P U L S E

“Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who own one.”

Past is present in Latin America

with 2 comments

Addressing the Summit of the Americas Obama explained “I didn’t come here to debate the past, I came here to deal with the future.”

6 thoughts on “Open Veins of Latin America”

  1. This book is beautifully written and exposes many wrong doings and the multiple foreign interventions by the US and Europe in Latin America. But I am afraid it has the same problem that many books of this type have: it presents Latin Americans as hopeless people who have no agency what so ever in their own destiny. For Galeano the only true possible path to liberation is through socialism (he does acknowledge nationalistic experiences but say that at the end they fail because they did not embrace socialism) We all know that reality is far more complicated than this. The nationalistic industrial policies followed by Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea and China has done far more to improve life standards in those countries than the failed socialist experiments in the world.

  2. Sorry Jairo!

    Policatily:
    Why do you compare the rich Latin America with the poor South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore? Why don’t you compare them to the also poor Sweden, Finland, Denmark? Let’s just leave China out of this one. It doesn’t make sense to include it.

    Historicaly:
    And yes, local elites have had their share of responsabilities. I personally like to call it weakness of caracter. But then again they weren’t (and in many cases still aren’t) aligned with the interests of the land. Why would they? Doesn’t it seem odd that the elites ruling over Latin America still are almost 100% from European heritage?

    Gaia has been particularly generous in Latin America. A grace the European avaritia couldn’t and still can’t grasp. Unfortunately these barbarians were and still are willing to use all means possible to cut though the open vains of Latin America and seeze the gift that keeps on given. They insist their paradigm is what will make most of what should be understood as been already the perfect gift.

    In other words, can you imagine how fucked up our environment would be if Latin America was anything like North America?

    But then again, that’s another gift.
    By the way, do you think Obama is socialist?

  3. Sorry for the late reply, but I just saw this one.

    Are you saying that is a good thing that Latin America remains undistrialised and poor because that way the environment is saved? I hope no. Poverty is by all means the worts destructive force to the enviornment.

    The reason I use Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea and China as a reference is that all of them had worst living standards than Latin American after the second world war. And yes, I do include China because it had by all means an inferior living standard than Brazil by the 1950s.

    There it was not socialism (as Galeano claims) that allowed it to improve the living standrad but a nationalistic set of industrial policies.

    Best
    Jairo

    PD: Obama is a communist! and Fox News is a liberal channel.

  4. I almost started answering your post. But I quickly realized it would be pointless.

    Obama is a communist? Come on! Do you even know what communism is?

    You might wonder why the whole world approves of Obama’s election. I have a theory. Obama is a conservative even by European standards, which if you look at South America are pretty conservative themselves. This essentially places the whole other option, the Republicans, in an completely outlandish position. What I am trying to say is that the USA just recently entered the 21st century. From the looks of it, this is not shaping up to be like the 20th for the gringos. Anyway, we welcome the USA into the 21st century.

    And to think your last name is the same as the Paraguayan president elected, which if knew something about him you would probably classify him as a child-eating anarchist.

  5. FromSouth, it appears you missed the irony there:

    Obama is a communist! and Fox News is a liberal channel.

    Jairo’s point is Obama is about as communist as Fox News is liberal.

  6. Yeah. I thought that was sarcasm. But his point on how industrialization is supposed to enrich South America sort of threw me off a bit. This is exactly the point people try to use to defend American foreign policy in South America during the Cold War, namely, supporting and in some cases hands-on implementation of every brutal dictatorship in the continent.

    It is known and somewhat undisputed even among conservatives in South America that this industrialization is what brought about the staggering level o social injustice. The single issue from which most of the problems in the region derive. That’s why our conservatives are progressive by any other standard.

    Finally, the greatest leap of improvement in living standards in the XX century was to be seen in the early days of the communist regimes, which went from 3rd world to second. That’s why I thought including China was just silly.

    Anyway, South America doesn’t need industrialization. At least not based on the paradigms the rich countries have been exporting so far. In fact, now we know not even the rich countries can afford to keep this paradigm.

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